Application of the NE555 timer in the monostable and astable mode.
Application of the decade counter/7-segment decoder IC CD4026.
Use of the NAND Gate IC CD 4011 for logic conversion.
While driving on highways, motorists tend to exceed the maximum permissible speed limit set by the traffic department. The speed checker implemented here is a low cost solution which will allow the traffic policemen to monitor speeds. The Speed Checker for Highways displays a digital reading corresponding to the vehicle’s speed and also sounds an alarm if the vehicle exceeds the permissible speed for the highway.
The speed-sensing is done by the means of two laser transmitter-LDR sensor pairs. These are installed on the highway 100 meters apart, with the transmitter and the LDR sensor of each pair on the opposite sides of the road. The system displays the time taken by the vehicle to cross this 100m distance from one pair to the other with a resolution of 0.01 second. The speed of the vehicle can be calculated from the simple speed-time-distance equation.
The Speed Checker for Highways implemented here assumes that the maximum permissible speed for highways is either 40Kmph or 60Kmph as per the traffic rule. For 40kmph limit the time period is set for 9 seconds using preset VR1, while for 60kmph limit the time period is set for 6 seconds using preset VR2. Slide switch S1 is used to select the time period as per the speed limit i.e. either 40Kmph or 60Kmph. The junction of LDR1 and resistor R1 is coupled to pin2 of IC1. Normally, light from the laser keeps falling on the LDR sensor continuously and thus the LDR offers a low resistance and pin2 of IC1 is high.
Whenever light falling on the LDR is interrupted by any vehicle, the LDR resistance goes high and hence pin 2 of IC1 goes low to trigger the monostable. As a result, output pin3 goes high for the preset period, either 9 or 6 seconds, and LED1 glows to indicate it. Reset pin 4 is controlled by the output of NAND gate N3 at power-on or whenever reset switch S2 is pushed. For IC2, the monostable is triggered in the same way as IC1 when the vehicle intersects the laser beam incident on LDR2 to generate a small pulse for stopping the count and for use in the speed detection. LED2 glows for the duration for which pin 3 of IC2 is high.
The outputs of IC1 and IC2 are fed to input pins 2 and 1 of NAND gate N1, respectively. When the outputs of IC1 and IC2 go high simultaneously i.e. the vehicle has crossed the preset speed limit, output pin 3 of gate N1 goes low to trigger mono-stable timer IC3. The output of IC3 is used for driving piezoelectric buzzer PZ1, which alerts the operator of speed-limit violation.
Resistor R9 and capacitor C5 decide the time period for which the piezoelectric buzzer sounds. The output of IC1 triggers the bistable (IC4) through gate N2 at the leading edge of the count-start pulse. When pin2 of IC4 goes low, the high output at its pin 3 enables astable clock generator IC5. Since the count-stop pulse output of IC2 is connected to pin6 of IC4 via diode D1, it resets clock generator IC5. IC5 can also be reset via diode D2 at power-on as well as when reset switch S2 is pressed.
Brand: Kits'n'spares, Marketed by: Kits'n'spares
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